Online Sumerian Dictionary

I’ll be adding words and definitions with each Sumerian language lesson I post. This is an exceptionally detailed dictionary, and I made sure to format it so it was easy on the eyes!

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D

E

G

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I

K

L

M

N

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R

S

Š

T

U

Z

A

a: 𒀀 (A/DURU5/ÉR/E4) /a/áya/ea/

  • n.,
    • water, fluid
    • semen,, seed
    • offspring, child, progeny
    • canal, watercourse
    • tears
    • flood
    • bird-cry
  • part. suff., (-a)
  • interj., alas!

a-a: 𒀀𒀀 (A.A)

  • n., father.

ab: 𒀊 (AB/ABBA/ÈŠ) /ab/ap/

  • n.,
    • lake, sea
    • hole, opening, window, vent
    • niche, nook
  • part., inf., (-b-) when preceded by /a/ {a + b = ab}
    • by it/them (erg. inf.)
    • following /ga-/ -b- refers to direct object ‘it’

àb: 𒀖 (ÁB/LID) /lid/lit/ab/

  • n., cow (domestic).

a-ba: 𒀀𒁀

  • pron., int., Who?

a-bí-sí-im-ti 𒀀𒉈𒍣𒋾

  • n queen or noble woman from Ur III period written as a-bí-sí-im-ti. (British Museum. (n.d.). Clay tag [Artifact No. BM 022018]. Girsu (mod. Tello), Ur III Period (ca. 2100-2000 BC). British Museum, London, UK.)

àbsin (ábsin): 𒀯𒀳 (ÁBSIN/ÀBSIN/APIN/ENGAR)

  • n., seed furrow.

a-gin7: 𒀀𒄀

  • adv.,
    • int., How? (in that way)

áĝ: 𒉘 (ÁĜA/ÁG/RE(NINDA2xNE)) /aĝ/ram/

  • v.,
    • to measure
    • to check

ak: 𒀝 (AG/AK/AKA/A5/KID3/ME6)

  • v.,
    • to do, act
    • to make into
    • to place
  • prep., suff., of (gen. case marker).

al: 𒀠

  • n., hoe, pickaxe.
  • part., pref., used before stative verbs to indicate: distance, lack of involvement by the speaker, lack of transitive relationship.

àm: 𒀀𒀭 (A.AN) /am/

ama: 𒂼 (AM/DAGAL/(GÁxAN))

  • n., mother.

 

amar: 𒀫 (AMAR/ZUR/MARAD/MÁR)

  • n., calf; young (of animals); son, descendant.

 

an: 𒀭 (AN/DIĜIR) /an/

  • n.,
    • sky, heaven
    • date cluster
    • An (god of the celestial sky)
  • v., to be high.
  • adj., high.
  • prep., in front.
  • part., inf., (-an-)
    • when preceded by /a/ {a+n}
      • he/she, it/they
      • by him/her (in some OB texts)
    • when preceding √+(e)š)
      • by them

a-na: 𒀀𒈾 (A.NA)

  • pron./adv., int., What? Who (impersonal)?
  • part., pron. suff., in his/her (loc.), of his/her (gen.) (before OB).

a-ne: 𒀀𒉈 (A.NE)

  • part., pron. suff.,
    • his/her (erg.) (before OB)
    • with -àm, (it is) his/her, he/she (before OB)

 

a-ne-ne: 𒀀𒉈𒉈 (A.NE.NE)

  • part., pron. suff., their (abs., erg.) (before OB)

a-ni: 𒀀𒉌 (A.NI)

  • pron., (ind./pron. suff.) his/her (pers.) (abs.) (before OB).

anše: 𒀲 (ANŠE)

  • n., donkey, equid, pack animal.

apin: 𒀳 (ÀBSIN/APIN/ENGAR/URU4)

  • n., plow.

 

arad: 𒀴  (ARAD/ÈR/ÍR/NÍTAḪ/NÍTA) (alternative of 𒍑 níta)

  • n., male; (male) slave, servant, subordinate.

 

aš: 𒀸 (AŠ/DIŠ/DILI/DIDLI/GE15) /aš/dil/rum/rù/ge/

  • v.,
    • to be single, unique, alone
    • to be one

B

ba: 𒁀 (BA) /ba/

  • n., share, portion, ration, wages, allotment.
  • v.,
    • to give
    • to apportion, divide, distribute, to allot
    • to pay
  • part.,

babbar: 𒌓 (BABBAR/U4/UD/UT/TUA/UTU) /liḫ/par/pir/tam/ud/ut/uţ/ḫiš/

  • v., to be white (alt. bábbar 𒌓𒌓)

banšur 𒍎 (BANŠUR/(URU x URUDA))

  • n.,
    • table
    • altar, offering table

bé: 𒁉 (BÉ/BI/BIZ/ÉBIR/ÉPIR/GAŠ/KA8/KÁŠ/KAŠ/PÉ/PÍ/SA18/SIRIS4/SU15/ŠA21/ŠU13) /bé/pé/bi/pí/kaš/

 

  • v.,
    • to diminish, lessen
    • to speak, say, mention
    • to chirp, buzz, hum, twitter
    • to howl, cry
  • conj., and.
  • part.,
    • pref., conjugational prefix
    • suff.,
      • its (erg.)
      • with -àm, (it is) its
      • suff., this/that (one) (pers./impers.) (near to speaker)
      • suff, adverbial force suffix

bi: 𒁉 (BÉ/BI/BIZ/ÉBIR/ÉPIR/GAŠ/KA8/KÁŠ/KAŠ/PÉ/PÍ/SA18/SIRIS4/SU15/ŠA21/ŠU13) /bé/pé/bi/pí/kaš/

 

  • v.,
    • to diminish, lessen
    • to speak, say, mention
    • to chirp, buzz, hum, twitter
    • to howl, cry
  • con., and.
  • part.,
    • pref., conjugational prefix
    • suff.,
      • pron. suff., its (sg./pl.) (abs.) (impers.).
      • dem. suff., this/that (one) (pers./impers.) (near to speaker)
      • adv. suff, adverbial force suffix

𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

 

bil: 𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6)

  • v., to burn, heat, roast.

 

bur 𒁓 (BUR/NÍG/gunû) /bur/pur/

  • n.,
    • offering of food
    • sacrifice
    • shallow bowl (stone), platter, shallow vessel, pot
    • meal, mealtime
    • priest

bur-saĝ: 𒁓𒊕

  • n.,
    • servant
    • building

D

da: 𒁕 (DA/ŢA) /da/ţa/

  • n.,
    • arm
    • edge, side, line
    • near, close
  • v.,
    • to hold
    • to protect
    • to be near
  • prep., suff., (-da) with (com. case marker)
  • conj., and (OA)

 

dab5: 𒂉 (DAB5/DÚR/DÚRU/DURUN/KU/TUKUL/TÚŠ/ŠE10) /ku/qú/dab/

  • v.,
    • to seize, take, catch
    • to hold
    • to bind, tie (up)
    • to envelop, overwhelm
    • to accept
    • to take charge of
    • to take away

 

dam: 𒁮 (DAM) /dam/ţam)

  • n., spouse, husband, wife.

dam-gàr 𒁮𒃼

  • n., merchant, trader

diĝir: 𒀭 (AN/DIĜIR) /an/

  • n., deity, god.
  • part., determinative indicating a deity (abbr. d).

 

dìlim: 𒇌 (not on wiki)

  • n., oven, tannour.

dilmunki: 𒉌𒌇𒆠 (NI.TUKki)

  • n., prop., Sumerian trading partner in the Persian Gulf between Mesopotamia and Indus Valley civilization, conquered by King Sargon II; a sacred city/territory which some speculate inspired the story of the Garden of Eden.

dú (tud/tu) 𒌅 (DÚ/TU/TUD/TUR5) /tu/ţu/ (sometimes tu-ud)

  • v
    • to give birth (to), bear a child
    • to beget
    • to be born
    • to make, fashion, create
    • to be reborn, transformed, changed

dù: 𒆕 (DÙ/GAK/KAK/KÀL/RÚ) /gag/kak/qaq

  • v.,
    • to build, to make
    • to do, to perform

dub: 𒁾 (DUB.KÌŠIB)

  • n., (clay) tablet, document.
  • v.,
    • to strew (with -ta-)
    • to heap, pile
    • to pour
    • to circle, whirl up
    • to (make) tremble, to shake
    • to push (away/down)
    • to abolish
    • to smash

 

dub-sar: 𒁾𒊬 (DUB.SAR)

  • n., scribe

dumu: 𒌉 (BÀN/DU13/DUMU/TUR) /tur/

  • n., child, son, daughter (possibly pronounced /domu/).

dumu-mí: 𒌉𒊩 (DUMU.MÍ)

  • n., daughter.

dumu-munus: 𒌉𒊩 (DUMU.MUNUS)

  • n., daughter.

 

dumu-níta: 𒌉𒀴 (DUMU.NÍTA)

  • n., son.

dúr: 𒂉 (DAB5/DÚR/DÚRU/DURUN/KU/TUKUL/TÚŠ/ŠE10) /ku/qú/dab/

  • n.,
    • anus, buttocks
    • dwelling
  • v.,
    • to sit (down) (marû)
    • to be seated, set down
    • to break wind
    • to dry out
    • to occupy, dwell

 

duru5: 𒀀 (A/DURU5/ÉR/E4) /a/áya/ea/

  • v.,
    • to be soft, supple
    • to be wet, damp, fresh
    • to be irrigated
  • adj., soft; wet, damp; fresh.

durun: 𒂉𒂉 (KU.KU)

E

e: 𒂊 (E) /e/

  • v.,
  • conj., than (second member comparison).
  • part.,
    • inf., (-e-):
      • [performed] by you (erg. sg. (hamţu))
      • with you (com. sg.)
      • to you (term. sg.)
      • [away] from you (abl. sg.)
      • by [means of] you (abl-inst. sg.)
      • in/on you (loc. sg.)
      • to/toward you (term. sg.)
    • suff., (-e)
    • interj., vocative interjection

é: 𒂍 (É) /bit/

  • n.,
    • house, household
    • temple
    • plot [of land]

é-gal: 𒂍𒃲 (É.GAL)

  • n., palace.

 

eme: 𒅴 (EME/KAxME)

  • n.,
    • tongue, language
    • speech
    • plow’s share

 

en: 𒂗 (EN) /en/

  • n.,
    • lord, dignitary
    • high priest
    • diviner
    • ancestor [statue]
  • v., to rule.
  • adj., noble.

 

èn: 𒇷 (LE/LI) /le/li/

  • n. time.
  • prep., until.
  • pron., he/she, him/her (rare OB).

 

e-na: 𒂊𒈾 (E.NA)

  • part., pron. suff., in his/her (loc.), of his/her (gen.) (OB).

e-ne: 𒂊𒉈 (E.NE)

  • pron., (e-ne)
    • he/she, him/her, that one (pers.)
    • to whom (dat.) (OB)
    • to you (pl.) (dat.) (OB)
  • part.,
    • pref., (e-ne-) they/them (pl., pers.) {e-ne-√}
    • inf., (-e-ne-) to you (pl.) (dat.) (OB)
    • suff., (-(e)ne)
      • pron. suff.,
        • his/her (erg.) (OB)
        • with -àm, (it is) his/her, he/she (OB)
        • their (abs., erg.) (OB)
        • plural marker for personal nouns
          • -ne when precede by a vowel (before OB)
        • they/them when immediately preceding the root verb {-e-ne-√}

e-ne-ne: 𒂊𒉈𒉈 (E.NE.NE)

  • pron., he/she, him/her (before OB).
  • suff., pron. suff., their (abs., erg.) (OB).

 

den-líl: 𒀭𒂗𒆤 (EN.LÍL)

  • n., prop., den-líl: 𒀭𒂗𒆤 (EN.LÍL) n., prop., the Sumerian God of the (earthly) Sky, including the wind, air, and storms. He is believed to be the first attested head of the Sumerian pantheon, and was primarily worshipped at the E-kur temple in Nippur. With his wife, Ninlil, he fathered the moon-god Nanna, the sun-god Utu, as well as Nergal, Ninazu, and Enbilulu. He is believed to have fathered Ninurta with Ninhursaĝ.

 

e-ni: 𒂊𒉌 (E.NI)

  • pron., (ind./pron. suff.) his/her (pers.) (abs.) (OB).

ereš 𒎏 (EREŠ/NIN) /nin/

  • n., lady, queen.

 

ereš-diĝir 𒎏𒀭  (NIN.DIĜIR)

  • n., priestess.

 

érin (erem, éren, erim): 𒂟

  • n., man, servant, soldier; army, troops, gang (of workers); people, folk.

 

eš: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

 

èš: 𒀊 (AB/ÈŠ) /ab/ap/

  • n., shrine, sanctuary.

 

5  𒐈 (DIŠ.DIŠ.DIŠ/EŠ5) (alt. 𒀼 (AŠ.AŠ.AŠ/EŠ16)

  • num., three.

G

ga: 𒂵(GA) /ga/qá/

  • n., milk.
  • v., to bring, carry.
  • part.,
    • pref., modal (ga-) (hamţu)
      • may I, let me, I want to
      • I shall
      • let’s
      • and, also, furthermore (with (i)n-))

 

ga-ab-šúm: 𒂵𒀊𒋧 (GA.AB.ŠÚM)

  • n., seller (lit. let me it give)

 

gaba:  𒃮

  • n.,
    • chest, breast
    • frontier, side (of field/mountain)
    • coast (on the opposite side of the Tigris river)

 

gaba(-a) …tab: 𒃮 𒋰

  • v., to hold to one’s chest.

 

gal: 𒃲 (GAL) /gal/qal/kál

  • v.,
    • to be big, great
    • to be retired
    • to be former
    • to be mature (male animals)
  • adj.,
    • big, great
    • retired
    • former
    • mature (male animals)

 

gàm (kam4): 𒆛 (GÀM/KAM4)

  • n., shepherd’s crook, bent stick, sickle; handle; hilt. v., to shine, glitter.

 

gàr:  𒃼 (GÀR)

  • n.,
    • cake, baked product, breads
    • knob

gaz: 𒄤 (GAZ/GAS/(GUMxŠE))

  • v.,
    • to kill, execute, slaughter
    • to break, crumble, grind, grate
    • to smash, crush

ge: 𒄀 (GI/GE/GIN7/SIG17/SISIG) /ge/gi/

  • part syllable used for spelling, often between words ending with /g/ and beginning with /e/ {zig + eš = zi-ge-eš}

gen (ĝen) (ĜEN/ĜIN/GEN) 𒁺 (DU/GIN/GEN/ĜIN/ĜÉN/GUB/KAŠ5/KIN7/RÁ/RI6/TÚM/DE6) /du/kub/kup/ţù/de/tum

  • n constancy, reliability, steadiness.
  • v
    • to come/go (hamţu (sg.) of du)
    • to come (with dative or -ši-) (sg. h. (du,re7, súb)
    • to send
    • to flow
  • adj
    • firm, solid
    • ordinary

gi  𒄀 (GI/GE/GIN7/SIG17/SISIG) /ge/gi/

  • n.,
    • reed
    • measuring reed
    • unit of length (6 kuš3 = approx. 3 meters)
    • essence
    • judgement

gi7: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

  • v.,
    • to be native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • to be noble
  • adj.,
    • native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • noble

gibil: 𒉋 (BIL/BÍL/GIBIL(NE+šešgig)) /bíl/

  • v.,
    • to be new, fresh
    • to (make new), renew, renovate

gìn: 𒆳 (KUR/GÌN) kur/lad/lat/mad/mat/nad/nat/šad/šat

  • n.,
    • mountain(s)
    • lapis lazuli

gin7: 𒄀 (GI/GE/GIN7/SIG17/SISIG) /ge/gi/

gir15: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

  • v.,
    • to be native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • to be noble
  • adj.,
    • native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • noble

 

gu: 𒄖

  • n., net, snare; cord, string, thread, wool, yarn; flax (stalks), hemp (stalks).

 

gu4 (gud): 𒄞

  • n., ox (domestic), bull; calf; cattle; lion.
  • v., to leap, dance.

 

gu7 (kú)𒅥 (GU7/KÚ(KAxGAR))

  • n
    • food, sustenance
    • fodder
    • angle
  • v
    • to eat, consume, devour, swallow
    • to use
    • to finish (off)
    • to feed, nurse
    • to benefit (with -ni-)

gud (gu4): 𒄞

  • n., ox (domestic), bull; calf; cattle; lion. v., to leap, dance.

Ĝ

ĝá: 𒂷 (/ĜÁ/ĜE26)

  • v., to go, come (imperative of du).
  • part., pron. suff., in/of my (loc., gen.)

ĝál: 𒅅 (IG/IK/ĜÁL/GÁL) /eg/ek/eq/ig/ik/iq/

  • v.,
    • to exist
    • to be (somewhere, there, available)
    • to produce
    • to cause to be
    • to provide
    • to be in the care/possession of (w/ -da)
    • to be possible (w/ -da)
    • to put, place, lay (something down) (w/ -ni-/-bi-)
    • to place/put into (w/ -ši-)
    • to be with (w/ -da-)
    • to take an oath
    • to dwell
    • to have
    • to guard, protect
    • to open

ĝe6 (ĝi6): 𒈪 MI (MI/ĜI6/GÍG/GE6) /mé/mi/ĝi/giggi/

  • n., night.
  • adj., black, dark.
  • v., to be black, dark (ku10 reduplicated marû).

 

ĝe26: 𒂷 (/ĜÁ/ĜE26)

  • pron., I, me, myself.

ĝen (gen) (ĜEN/ĜIN/GEN) 𒁺 (DU/GIN/GEN/ĜIN/ĜÉN/GUB/KAŠ5/KIN7/RÁ/RI6/TÚM/DE6) /du/kub/kup/ţù/de/tum

  • n., constancy, reliability, steadiness
  • v.,
    • to come/go (hamţu (sg.) of du)
    • to come (with dative or -ši-) (sg. h. (du,re7, súb)
    • to send
    • to flow
  • adj.,
    • firm, solid
    • ordinary

ĝi6 (ĝe6): 𒈪 MI (MI/ĜI6/GÍG/GE6) /mé/mi/ĝi/giggi/

  • n., night.
  • adj., black, dark.
  • v., to be black, dark (ku10 reduplicated marû).

ĝír (ĝíri): 𒄈

  • n., dagger, knife, sword, blade; thorn; scorpion; flash of lightening; road, trip, expedition; strike, slay, stab.
  • v., to stab; to lighten, flash.

ĝir15: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

  • v.,
    • to be native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • to be noble
  • adj.,
    • native, indigenous, local, domestic, domesticated
    • noble

ĝír-tab: 𒄈𒋰

  • n., scorpion.

 

ĝiš: 𒄑 (ĜEŠ/ĜiŠ/GEŠ)

  • n., tree, wood, tool; organ; plow.
  • adj., plow (animal); wooden.

 

ĝu10: 𒈬 (MU/MUḪALDIM/ĜU10) /mu/ĝu/

  • pron., suff., my, mine (abs., erg.)

ḫa  𒄩 (A7/ḪA/KUA/KUD/KU6) /ḫa/

  • part., pref., verbal prefix may, let, indeed (precative, affirmative).

ḫar: 𒄯 (ÀRA/ḪAR/ḪUR/MUR/UR5/(ḪIxÁŠ)) aara/mur/ḫar/ḫur/

  • n., ring.

 

ḫi: 𒄭 (DÙG/DÙG/DU10/I11/ḪE/ḪÍ) / ḫé/ḫí/ì/

  • v.,
    • to mix (up)
    • to process

ḫuĝ: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

  • v.,
    • to pacify, abate
    • to hire, rent
    • to introduce
    • to rest

ḫúl: 𒄾 (ḪÚL/BIBRA/BIBRI/KUŠ8)

  • n., joy, rejoicing.
  • v., to rejoice, be happy, delight (in).
  • adj., joyous.

ḫur: 𒄯 (ÀRA/ḪAR/ḪUR/MUR/UR5/(ḪIxÁŠ)) /ara/mur/ḫar/ḫur/

  • v., to scratch, draw, incise.

 

ḫur-saĝ: 𒄯𒊕 (ḪUR.SAĜ)

  • n., mountain, foothills, steppe.

ḫuš: 𒍽 (ḪUŠ)

  • v.,
    • to be angry
    • to be reddish, ruddy
  • adj.,
    • reddish, ruddy
    • fiery red
    • furious, angry
    • terrible, awesome
    • wild (of animals)

I

ì: 𒉌 (DIG/IA/Ì/NI/ZAL) /i/ì/lí/né/ni/zal/

  • n.,
    • butter, oil, fat, cream
    • oil container
  • part., pref., conjugational prefix (indicates distance from speaker)

íb: 𒌈 (TUM/ÍB/EGIR4) /dàm/tam4/dum/tum/du4/tu4/éb/ép/íb/íp/tím/

  • n.,
    • hips
    • middle
  • v.,
    • to be angry
    • to curse
  • part., conjugational prefix
      • as a stand-alone prefix (íb-√) referring to the agent (3rd imp.) (erg.)
      • as a prefix to a dimensional infix (da/ta/ši/ra) referring to the patient (3rd pl./sg.)
    • , (-b-) by it, when preceded by /i/ {i+b = ib} (erg.)

im: 𒅎 (EM/IM/IŠKUR/NÍ/TUM9/TU15) /em/im/ni/

  • n.,
    • clay, mud, loam
    • tablet
    • rain, rainstorm, storm
    • wind, weather, cloud
    • direction

im-ri-a: 𒅎𒊑𒀀 (IM.RI.A)

  • n., family, clan, relatives.

in: 𒅔 (IN) /in/

  • n.,
    • abuse
    • insult, offense
    • sector
    • straw
  • part.,
    • pref., conjugational prefix
      • as a stand-alone prefix (in-√) referring to 3rd sg./pl. agent
      • as a 3rd sg. prefix referring to the patient
      • as a 3rd sg. prefix in negated copula (in-nu: it was not )
    • inf., (-n-)
      • when preceded by /i/ {i+n}
        • he/she, him/her
        • by him/her (erg.)
      • when preceded by √+(e)š
        • by them
      • dimensional prefix (-n-) (before da/ta/ši) when preceded by an /i/ {i+n} (3rd sg. pers.).

 

inim: 𒅗 (GÙ/ZÚ/DUG4/DU11/KA/KIR4/GIRI17/INIM/I5) /ka/kag/

  • n.,
    • word
    • statement
    • command, order, decree
    • oath, agreement
    • matter (affairs), concern, subject
  • num., seven (7).
  • adv., many, all.

 

iri: 𒌷 (URU/IRI) /uru/iri/eri

  • n.,
    • city, town, village
    • district

iš: 𒅖 (IŠ/ISIŠ/KUŠ7/SAḪAR/UKUM) /iš/mil/iš/iši/kuš/mel/saḫar/ukum/

  • n.,
    • mountain(s)
    • sand dune

iti 𒌚 (UD šešig/(UD x EŠ)ITI/ITU/TI10/(UDxEŠ)) /itu/itud/

  • n.,
    • month
    • moon
    • moonlight

 

itud (itim, itid) 𒌗((UDxU.U.U)/DU16/ITI/ITU/ITUD/TI10)

  • n.,
    • month
    • moon
    • moonlight

izi 𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

  • n., fire, brazier.

K

ka 𒅗 (GÙ/ZÚ/DUG4/DU11/KA/KIR4/GIRI17/INIM/I5) /ka/kag/

  • n.,
    • mouth
    • opening
    • beginning, inception, origin

kalag: 𒆗 (ESI/GURUŠ/KAL/KALA/KALAG/LAMMA/SIG15) /dan/kal/lab/lap/líb/líp/rib/rip/tan/

  • v.,
    • to be strong, mighty, powerful
    • to strengthen, reinforce
    • to repair, mend
    • to provide (for)
  • adj., strong, swift

kalam: 𒌦 (UN/KALAM/KANAM/ÙG/ÙĜ/ÙKU) /un/uĝ/

  • n., country, land, nation (usually Sumer).
  • n., prop the Land (of Sumer).

 

kam 𒄰 (ḪI x BAD)/DU15/KAM/TU7/ÚTUL) /gám/qám/kam

  • v., to tune.

 

kam4 (gam): 𒆛 (GÀM/KAM4)

  • n., shepherd’s crook, bent stick, sickle; handle; hilt.
  • v., to shine, glitter.

 

kaskal: 𒆜

  • n., road, path; expedition, journey; caravan.

KASKAL dÙŠU: 𒆜𒀭𒌍 (also KASKAL d30)

  • n., title, lit. Moon’s Path, referring to path the moon takes through the constellations. It was the earliest known zodiacal system, also known as the Sumerian zodiac. It as composed of 17 to 18 constellations, which were reduced to 12 by the Babylonians.

ke4 𒆤 (GÉ/KID/LÍL/SAḪ) /kid/kit/qid/qit/saḫ/

  • part., syllable used in spelling {ak + e = a-ke4}

ki: 𒆠 (KI) ke/qé/ki/qí

  • n.,
    • earth
    • ground
    • area, location, place
    • grain
  • prep.,
    • where
    • wherever, whenever
    • behind

ki aĝ: 𒆠𒉘(KI.ÁĜ)

  • v.,
    • to love
    • to show affection

ki-en-gi-ra: 𒆠𒂗𒄀𒊏

  • n., prop., (land of) Sumer; Sumeria.

kíĝ (kin): 𒆥 (KIN/KÍĜ/SAGA11) /qe/qi/

  • n., message, order, task, work
  • v.,
  • adj., pointed.

 

kíĝ-sig:  𒆥𒋝

  • n., meal (afternoon/evening).

kiš  𒆧 (KIŠ) /kis/qis/kiš/qiš/

  • n.,
    • totality
    • world
    • entirety of geopolitical world

kisal: 𒆦 (KISAL/PAR4)

  • n.,
    • courtyard
    • weight measure

ki-šár: 𒆠𒊹 (KI.ŠÁR)

  • n.,
    • totality, whole earth, horizon
    • everywhere

kiški  𒆧𒆠 (KIŠ.KI)

  • n., prop., Sumerian city occupied from 5300 – 4300 BC, located near Tell al-Uhaymir in modern Iraq.

kú (gu7) 𒅥 (GU7/KÚ(KAxGAR))

  • n.,
    • food, sustenance
    • fodder
    • angle
  • v.,
    • to eat, consume, devour, swallow
    • to use
    • to finish (off)
    • to feed, nurse
    • to benefit (with -ni-)

kù (kug): 𒆬 (KUG/) /kug/

  • n.,
    • metal
    • silver, precious metal
    • money
  • v.,
    • to be pure
    • to be holy, sacred
    • to purify, sanctify
  • adj.,
    • bright, white
    • pure, sacred, holy

 

ku4 (kur9) 𒆭 (KU4/KUR9) (reduplicated class stem sun5)

  • n., entrance.
  • v.,
    • to enter, make enter, enter before (with dative pref.), let enter (with -ni-), enter into the presence of (with -ši-)
    • to turn around
    • to bring (in), introduce, deliver (with -ni (location))
    • to become, turn into, to transform (with -da-)
    • to be declared
    • to be made liable for

kud (ku6) 𒄩 (A7/ḪA/KUA/KUD/ KU6) /ḫa/

  • n., fish.
  • part., suff., determinative suffix indicating a class of fish.

kug (kù): 𒆬 (KUG/) /kug/

  • n.,
    • metal
    • silver, precious metal
    • money
  • v.,
    • to be pure
    • to be holy, sacred
    • to purify, sanctify
  • adj.,
    • bright, white
    • pure, sacred, holy

 

kun: 𒆲

  • n., tail; outlet (canal); reservoir, basin (storage); grasp.

 

kur: 𒆳 (KUR/GÌN) kur/lad/lat/mad/mat/nad/nat/šad/šat

  • n.,
    • mountain(s), highland
    • foreign land
    • underworld, netherworld
  • v.,
    • to reach, attain
    • to rise
    • to kindle, to light up, to ignite
    • to burn

kur9 (ku4) 𒆭 (KU4/KUR9) (reduplicated class stem sun5)

  • n., entrance.
  • v.,
    • to enter, make enter, enter before (with dative pref.), let enter (with -ni-), enter into the presence of (with -ši-)
    • to turn around
    • to bring (in), introduce, deliver (with -ni (location))
    • to become, turn into, to transform (with -da-)
    • to be declared
    • to be made liable for

L

la: 𒆷 (LA/ŠIKA) /la/

  • n.,
    • plenty, abundance
    • wealth, luxury
    • happiness, joy, bliss
    • youthfulness
    • wish, desire
    • lust
  • part., prefix (la-) no, is not, without (with -ba-)

 

le 𒇷 (LE/LI) /le/li/

  • part., syllable used for spelling

líl: 𒆤 (GÉ/KID/LÍL/SAḪ) /kid/kit/qid/qit/saḫ/

  • n.,
    • air, wind, breath
    • outdoors, open air/country
    • emptiness, nothingness
    • ghost, phantom, spirit (of a place)

 

lim: 𒅆  (IGI/ŠI/LIM/GI8)

  • num., Akkadian logogram for līmum, meaning “one-thousand”.

 

lu: 𒇻 (LU/UDU)

  • n., man; men, people; sheep; many, much.
  • v., to be abundant; to heap up; to multiply; to mix; to pasture, graze; swarm.

 

lú: 𒇽 (LÚ) /lu/

  • n.,
    • man
    • male
    • human being, person
    • gentleman
  • pron.,
    • who(m), which
    • someone, anyone, no one

lugal: 𒈗 (LUGAL/ḪÁNIŠ)

  • n.,
    • king
    • owner, master, lord

 

lul: 𒈜

  • n., liar; lie; malicious action.
  • v., to be false; to be criminal.
  • adj., false, malicious, treacherous.

M

ma: 𒈠 (MA/PÈŠ) /ma/

  • part., suff., (-ma)
    • and, but
    • expresses emphasis

maḫ 𒈤 (MAḪ/MAH)

  • v.,
    • to be high, lofty, exalted
    • to be great, large, magnificent
    • to make large
    • to be chief, senior
  • adj.,
    • high, exalted, great, lofty
    • foremost
    • sublime

 

maš: 𒈦 (alt. of 𒈧) (MAŠ/SA9)

  • n., twin; (one) half; middle, center.

máš: 𒈧 (MÁŠ) /maš/

  • n.,
    • goat, kid (masc.)
    • sacrificial animal
    • interest (on debt, yield, etc.)
    • rent
    • profit
    • produce, yield (crop)
  • v., to inspect, scrutinize

me: 𒈨 (IŠIB/ME/MÉŠ) /me/mì/šib/šip/

  • n.,
    • function, office, responsibility
    • ideal [norm]
    • divine power
    • divine decree
    • oracle
    • cult [ordinance]
  • v.,
    • I am, you are (en. cop.) (OS)
    • they are (en. cop.) (NS)
    • to say/tell
  • adv., int., where?
    • in where (with -a)
    • from where, whither? (with -ta
    • to(ward) where, whence? (with -šè)
  • part.,
    • inf., (-me-) to us (dat.) (OB)
    • suff., (-me) our (abs., erg., gen.)

mè: 𒀞 (MÈ/AKxÉRIN)

  • n., battle, combat.

 

me-en: 𒈨𒂗 (ME.EN)

  • v., I am/you are (en. cop.)

 

me-en-dè-en: 𒈨𒂗𒉈𒂗 (ME.EN.DÈ.EN)

  • v., we are (en. cop.)

 

me-en-zé-en: 𒈨𒂗𒍢𒂗 (ME.EN.ZÉ.EN)

  • v., you are (pl.) (en. cop.)

 

me-eš: 𒈨𒂠 (ME.EŠ)

  • v., they are (pl.) (en. cop.)

meš (me-eš): 𒎌 (alt. of 𒈩 mes/mèš) (MEŠ)

  • n., blackness, black spot; black wood; hackberry tree. hero; young man; prince; son.
  • v., to be manly, masculine.
  • part., suffix., creates plurality in names (contraction of me-eš: 𒈨𒂠 ‘they are’).

mi: 𒈪 MI (MI/ĜI6/GÍG/GE6) /mé/mi/ĝi/giggi/

  • part., syllable used in spelling.

mí: 𒊩 (MÍ/MUNUS/SAL) /rag/rak/raq/šal/

  • n., woman, female.
  • adj., female, feminine.

mu: 𒈬 (MU/MUḪALDIM/ĜU10) /mu/ĝu/

  • n.,
    • name
    • word
    • year
    • line [on a tablet], [an] entry [in a record]
    • oath
  • v.,
    • to name
    • to speak 
  • prep., because.
  • part., pref., (mu-)
    • hither, fourth (adv.)
    • conjugation prefix (may suggest involvement by speaker)

mul: 𒀯 (MUL)

  • n.,
    • celestial body, star, planet, constellation, meteor
    • arrow
  • v.,
    • to (let) glow, to shine, to sparkle, to radiate [light or branches]
    • to show
  • det., pref., determinative indicating class of celestial bodies.

MUL.APIN 𒀯𒀳

  • n., title, lit. the Plow Star, or Plow Constellation. An astrological catalogue primarily concerned with 66 stars and constellations, and their rising, setting, and culmination dates. The 17/18 constellations listed in the Path of the Moon (KASKAL d 𒆜𒀭𒌍) are the original constellations of the Sumerian zodiac, and would eventually be reduced to 12 by the Babylonians.

munus: 𒊩 (MÍ/MUNUS/SAL) /rag/rak/raq/šal/

  • n., woman, female.
  • adj., female.
  • part., det. pref., determinative indicating the name of a female.

muš: 𒈲 (MUŠ)

  • n., snake, reptile.
  • adj., bitter.

mušen:  𒄷 (ḪU/RI/MUŠEN)

  • n., bird.

muš-ḫuš  𒈲 𒍽

n., monster

N

na: 𒈾(NA) /na/

  • n.,
    • man (OB)
    • incense
    • pebble, rock
    • hailstone
    • stone weight
    • token
  • part.,
    • pref., modal prefix
      • emphatic (past tense)
      • prohibitive may he/she not, he/she shall not (present/future tense)
    • inf., (-na-) to him/her (dat.).
    • suff., pron. suff., he/she, that one.

 

ná (nud/nú):  𒈿 (NÁ/NÚ/NUD)

  • n., couch, bed.
  • v., to lie down, to lay down; to sleep with; to be ill.

 

nag (naĝ/na8) 𒅘 (NAĜ/NAG/NA8/(KAxA)) /nag/nak/naq/ (reduplicated form of na8-na8 𒅘𒅘 marû)

  • n., a drink.
  • v.,
    • to drink
    • to irrigate, to water

na4 𒎎 (IA4/NA4/ZÁ)

  • n.,
    • stone
    • pebble, rock
    • stone weight
    • tolken
    • hailstone
  • part., pref., determinitive prefix indicating a type of stone.

 

naĝ (nag/na8) 𒅘 (NAĜ/NAG/NA8/(KAxA)) /nag/nak/naq/ (reduplicated form of na8-na8 𒅘𒅘 marû)

    • n., a drink.
  • v.,
    • to drink
    • to irrigate, to water

nam: 𒉆 (NAM/SIM/BIR5) /nam/sim/bir/

  • n.,
    • being, state
    • fate, destiny, determined order, lot
    • testament, will
    • area of responsibility, office
    • governor
    • province
    • sign
    • manner, way
  • adv., because of (w/ -še)
  • part., pref., (nam-) -ship, -ness

na-me: 𒈾𒈨 (NA.ME)

  • pron., some, any, none.

dnanna: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 (DŠEŠ.KI) (Akk. 𒀭𒂗𒍪 DEN.ZU, pron. Suen or Sin)

  • prop. n., The Sumerian God of the Moon who once ruled as the head of the pantheon. He was the son of Enlil, and the husband of Ningal. Their children were Inanna and Utu, among others. His center of worship was in Ur.

ne: 𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

  • n., brazier.
  • part.,
    • inf., (-ne-)
      • his/her
      • they/them (dimensional)
      • to/with/toward them (pers.) (dat., com., term.)
    • suff., (-ne)
      • his/her
      • this (one here) (rare)
      • by/for them (erg.)
      • (-(e)ne) plural marker for personal nouns
        • -e-ne when preceded by a consonant {C+ene} (in all cases in OB and later)

ni: 𒉌 (DIG/IA/Ì/NI/ZAL) /i/ì/lí/né/ni/zal/

  • part.,
    • inf., (-ni-) indicates his/her/its location or direction (loc.-term.)
    • suf., (-(a)ni) his/her when following a vowel

níĝ: 𒃻 (GAR/NÍĜ/NÍG/NÍK/NINDA/NÌ/ŠÁ) /gar/šá/

  • n.,
    • thing
    • possession, property, treasure
    • valuables, assets
    • [a] matter
  • pron.,
    • ind., something
    • rel., which

nim: 𒉏 (NIM/NUM/DIḪ/ELAM) /nim/elam/num/

  • n.,
    • fly, insect
    • highland
    • east
    • morning
    • easterner
  • v.,
    • to be high, elevated
    • to multiply
    • to be early
  • adj., high, early.
  • adv., above.

 

nin: 𒎏 (EREŠ/NIN) /nin/

  • n., lady, mistress, owner (f.), lord (f.), queen.

nin9: 𒎐 (NIN9)

  • n., sister.

dnin-ḫur-saĝ 𒀭𒎏𒄯𒊕: (DNIN.ḪUR.SAĜ)

  • n., prop., the oldest Sumerian Mother Goddess, who was embodied in the mountains. As one of the seven primary deity of Sumer, she was associated with fertility and nurturing. She and Enlíl fathered Ninurta, and under the name Ninmaḫ, she played a major role in the creation of humans, along with Enki.

níta: 𒀴 (ARAD/ÌR/NÍTA/NÍTAḪ) /èr/ìr/

  • n., male.
  • adj., male, masculine.

nu (not). 𒉡 (NU) /nu/ v to not be, no

  • n.,
    • image, picture, likeness
    • statue, figurine
  • adv., not, no, without

 

nú (nud):  𒈿 (NÁ/NÚ/NUD)

  • n., couch, bed.
  • v., to lie down, to lay down; to sleep with; to be ill.

 

nun 𒉣 (ERIDU/ERIDUG/NUN) /nun/síl/zil/eridug/

  • n.,
    • object (metal)
    • prince
    • noble, master
  • v., to rise up.
  • adj.,
    • best, foremost
    • great
    • noble
    • fine
    • deep

P

pa: 𒉺 (PA)

  • n., wing; branch; frond.

 

paḫ: 𒈜 (LUL/NAR/PAḪ)

  • n., leg.

 

pap: 𒉽 (PAB/PAP/PA4)

n., first, foremost, pre-eminant; father; male, virile; brother.

R

ra: 𒊏 (RA) /ra/

  • part., (-ra-)
    • inf.,
      • away to (abl.)
      • to you (sg.) (dat.)
      • to/for (dat.)
    • suff., to/for (dative case marker)

rá: 𒁺 (DU/GIN/GUB/KAŠ5/KIN7/RÁ/RI6/TÚM) /du/kub/kup/ţù/

  • v.,
    • to accompany
    • to lead
    • to bear
    • to go
    • to drive along/away
    • to stir, to mix
    • to multiply

 

ḫ: 𒊏 (RA/RÁḪ)

  • v., to hit, strike down, beat on; to drive (animals); to impress (a seal).

 

ri: 𒊑 (DAL/RI/ŠA7) /dal/ţal/re/ri/tal/ša7/

  • v.,
    • to lie (upon)
    • to place (upon/against) (w/ -ši-)
    • to press upon
    • to put onto/into
    • to oppress, impose
    • to cover
    • to affix
    • to lay down, erect, found, cast
    • to equip with
    • to mix into
    • to throw
    • to pour
    • to be located
    • to touch
    • to moor
    • to break (open)
    • to expel, remove, throw away, sweep away (w/ -ta-)
    • to beget
    • to blow (storm)
    • to emit
    • to inundate
    • to exchange
    • to take, gather
    • to glean, pull, pick
    • to plan (hamţu)
    • to accompany
    • to lead, drive along
    • to be distant
    • to tend
  • adj., distant, far.
  • part., dem. pref., that/those (way over there).

S

sa 𒊓 (SA) /sa/

  • n.,
    • sinew, tendon
    • gut
    • catgut string, cord, string (of a musical instrument)
    • net
    • mat
    • reed-bundle
    • bunch
    • entry (lexical)
    • jewelry
  • v., to roast, parch.

sa10: 𒉚 (NÍNDAxŠE/SA10/SÁM)

  • v.,
    • to measure out (grain—comparison)
    • to be equivellant
    • to barter
    • to buy, pay for (with -ši-)
    • to sell, be paid for (w/ -ra-)

 sa12 (saĝ): 𒊕 (SAĜ/SAG/SA12)

  • n.,
    • head
    • man, person, human, individual
    • capital
    • point
    • leader
    • present
    • gift
    • slave, servant
    • front (side), beginning
    • surface, top
  • adj., first, prime.
  • prep., in front.

sal: 𒊩 (MÍ/MUNUS/SAL) /rag/rak/raq/šal/

  • n., uterus, vulva.
  • v.,
    • to be(come) narrow, thin, fine
    • to be wide, spacious
    • to spread
    • to be frivolous
    • to persist
    • to belittle
  • pref., det., determinative indicating the name of a female.
  •  

sig: 𒋝 (SIG) /sig/sik/siq/šig/šik/šiq/

  • v., to be weak, slow, thin, narrow.
  • adj.,
    • low
    • late
    • small
    • narrow
    • weak

sila: 𒋻 (TAR/KUD/KUR5/SILA/ḪAŠ) /kuř/

  • n.,
    • street, path, road, trail
    • market (place)
    • bait
    • dues (outstanding)
    • heel

 

sim(mušen): 𒉆 (BIR5/NAM/SIM/SÍN)

  • n., swallow.

 

sipa (sipad): 𒉺𒇻 (PA.LAGAB x MAŠ)

  • n., shepherd, herder; keeper.
  • v., to tend; to herd; to pasture; to shepherd.

 

 

sud: 𒋤(SER/SIR/SUD/SÙ) /šud/šut/šuţ/

  • v.,
    • to be/make remote, far away, lasting
    • to stretch, elongate
    • to be profound
    • to wag
    • to rejoice, feel delight
    • to sip
    • to sprinkle, strew
    • to furnish, provide
    • to immerse, sink, drown (red.)
  • adj., long.

 

saĝ (sa12): 𒊕 (SAĜ/SAG/SA12) /ris/riš/sag/sak/saq/san/šag/šak/šaq/

  • n.,
    • head
    • man, person, human, individual
    • capital
    • point
    • leader
    • present
    • gift
    • slave, servant
    • front (side), beginning
    • surface, top
  • adj., first, prime.
  • prep., in front.

 

sar: 𒊬 (KIRI6/MÚ/SAKAR/SAR/SÁḪAR/ŠAKAR/ŠÀR) /šar/

  • n.,
    • garden
    • area, volume
    • surface measurement (garden plot)
  • v.,
    • to write, inscribe
    • to run, hasten
    • to insert, enter
    • to begin
    • to pay, deliver
    • to drive, chase away (with -ta-)
  • adj., driven/chased away, pursued.
  • part., suff., det., determinative suffix indicating a class of greens or vegetables (obsolete)

 

si 𒋛 (SI/MA/SIG9) /se/si/sig/

  • n.,
    • horn(s), antenna(e)
    • line
    • ray(s)
    • light
    • plowland
    • finger
    • fret
  • v.,
    • to fill, load up
    • to draw water
    • to brew beer
    • to remember
    • to stand upright, be straight
    • to be in order
    • to become still
    • to survey
    • to inundate, be full of, be sufficient, enough
    • to increase
    • to compensate, repay, replace
  • adj.,
    • regular, normal
    • suitable, fit

 

𒍣 (SÉ/SÍ/ZI/ZID/ZÌG) /sé/sí/ze/ṣé/ṣí/

  • part., syllable used in spelling.

 

sìla 𒋡

  • n.,
    • unit of capacity/volume
    • litre (approximate)
    • vessel
    • cut (of meat)
    • fragment

 

su 𒍪 (ZU/SU) /sú/zu/ṣú/

  • n.,
    • flesh
    • body
    • skin, animal hide
    • relatives
    • substitute
    • entrails (omen)
  • adj., naked
  • v., to sink, submerge

 

suḫur: 𒋦 (SUḪUR)

  • n., tuft, plume; crown, tree top; hair; scalp; crest.
  • v., to trim (hair); to comb (hair); to scratch; to incise.

Š

ša: 𒊭 (ŠA/ARA/NA5)

  • v., to dry up.

 

šà (šag4) : 𒊮 (ŠÀ/ŠAG4) /šà/šag/

  • n.,
    • heart
    • inside of the body
    • intestines, gut, stomach, abdomen, entrails
    • womb
    • body
    • will, volition
    • mood
    • meaning, sugnificance
  • prep., in, at, inside, interior, middle, midst.

šag4 (šà): 𒊮 (ŠÀ/ŠAG4) /šà/šag/

  • n.,
    • heart
    • inside of the body
    • intestines, gut, stomach, abdomen, entrails
    • womb
    • body
    • will, volition
    • mood
    • meaning, sugnificance
  • prep in, at, inside, interior, middle, midst.

šár: 𒊹 (ŠÁR) /ŠÀR/

  • n.,
    • totality, world, horizon, ball
    • counter, token
  • v.,
    • to be numerous
    • to mix (with -da-), make abundant
    • to be perfect
    • to slaughter
    • to request, implore (red.)
  • adj., many, numerous, innumerable.
  • num., 3600

šè: 𒂠 (ÉŠ/ŠÈ/ḪUĜ/GE7/GI7/GIR/ĜIR) /eš/še/š/ḫuĝ/ge/gi/gir/ĝir/

  • n., portion. 
  • part., suff.,
    • (-še/-eš) to/toward, up to, until (term. case marker)
    • (-še/-eš) they/them (pl. (hamţu))
    • (-še/-eš) creates an adverb

še6 (šeĝ6/šeg6): 𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6/ŠEG6/ŠE6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

  • v.,
    • to heat, cook, bake, boil
    • to be hot
    • to dry a field (red. m.)
    • to fire (pottery)

šeg6 (šeĝ6/še6)𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6/ŠEG6/ŠE6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

  • v.,
    • to heat, cook, bake, boil
    • to be hot
    • to dry a field (red. m.)
    • to fire (pottery)

 

šeĝ6 (še6/šeg6): 𒉈 (BAR7/BIL/BIR9/BÍ/DÈ/GIBL4/IZI/KÚM/LI9/NE/ŠEG6/ŠEG6/ŠE6) /bil/pil/bí/ne/

  • v.,
    • to heat, cook, bake, boil
    • to be hot
    • to dry a field (red. m.)
    • to fire (pottery)

šen: 𒊿 (ALAL/DUR10/PÌSAN/ŠEN/(SUxA))

  • n.,
    • battle, combat
    • cauldron
  • v., to be pure, clear

šeš: 𒋀 (SES/ÙRI/ÙRU/ŠEŠ/ŠIZ) /sis/siš/šiš/

  • n.,
    • brother
    • colleague
    • junior worker, assistant

ši: 𒅆 (IGI/ŠI/LIM/GI8) /lem/lim/ši/

 

ším: 𒋆 (ŠIM/ŠEM/ŠÍM/SIM)

  • n., aromatic wood; herb; spice; fragrance, perfume.
  • adj., fragrant.

 

šu 𒋗 (ŠU) /šu/

  • n.,
    • hand
    • share, portion, bundle
    • strength
    • control
    • handwriting
    • responsibility
    • pestle, muller, pounding stone
  • v., to pour.

 

šul 𒂄 (DUN/ŠUL) /dun/šáḫ/šul/

  • n.,
    • a youth, young man
    • warrior
    • invader
  • v.,
    • to be manly
    • to hurry, hasten
    • to rub into the skin
  • adj.,
    • manly
    • masculine
    • young
    • strong
    • heroic, splendid
    • proud

dšul-gi 𒀭𒂄𒄀 (DŠUL.GI)

  • n., an equid.
  • n., prop., Son of Ur-Nammu, the first Sumerian king of the Third Dynasty of Ur, who reigned for 48 years, sometime between c 2100-1980 BCE. He is credited with building the Great Ziggurat of Ur.

šúm: 𒋧 (SÌ/SUM/ŠÚM)

  • n., garlic, onion
  • v., to give, lend

šu-nim: 𒋗𒉏

  • n., spring, springtime.

 

šu …dab5: 𒋗 …𒂉

  • v., to take, accept, hold (in hand).

T

ta: 𒋫 (TA) /dá/ţá/ta/

  • part.,
    • inf., (-ta-) away from (abl.)
    • suf., (-ta)
      • away from, out of, since, after (abl.)
      • by means of (inst.)
      • creates an adverb

tab: 𒋰 (TAB/MIN6)

  • n., disease, illness, sting, fever.
  • num., two (2).
  • v.,
    • to grasp, hold
    • to begin, start
    • to burn
    • to make/dye red
    • to brand, mark
    • to double (sometimes reduplicated marû)
    • to repeat
    • to partner
    • to be parallell
    • to flatten, lay flat
    • to tremble, shake
    • to hasten
    • to join (w/-da-)
  • adv., together (before verb).

ti: 𒋾 (DÌ/TE9/TI/TÌL/ŢE6) /dì/ti/

  • n.,
    • life
    • rib
    • arrow
    • side
  • v., to approach (hamţu)
    • to live, be alive, keep alive
    • to survive (with -da)
    • to revive
    • to dwell, reside
    • to be halted

tir: 𒌁 (TIR) /ter/tir/

  • n.,
    • forest, grove, thicket
    • bow
    • mud,
    • wood

tu (tud/dú) 𒌅 (alt. of ù-tu(d) 𒅇𒌅) (DÚ/TU/TUD/TUR5) /tu/ţu/ (alt. ù-tu/ù-tud)

  • v.,
    • to give birth (to), bear a child.
    • to beget
    • to be born
    • to make, fashion, create
    • to be reborn, transformed, changed

 

tuku6: 𒌅𒄩

  • n., fish.

tud (dú/tu) 𒌅 (DÚ/TU/TUD/TUR5) /tu/ţu/ (alt. tu-ud)

  • v.,
    • to give birth (to), bear a child
    • to beget
    • to be born
    • to make, fashion, create
    • to be reborn, transformed, changed

 

tuku 𒌇 (TUKU/TUG/TUK/DÚK/DU12/TU12) /tug/tuk/tuq/tuku

  • n.,
    • creditor
  • v.,
    • to have, own, possess
    • to marry
    • to acquire, obtain
    • to receive, get (m. red.)
    • to have a claim against someone (with -da-)
    • to sing, play music

tum: 𒌈

  • n., work, action; cross-beam; quiver (for arrows).
  • part., suff., feminine suffix in Akkadian.

 

tum12(mušen) 𒌅𒄷:

  • n., (wild) dove.

tum12(mušen.ku6) 𒌅𒄷 𒄩:

  • n., fish.

tur: 𒌉 (BÀN/DUMU/TUR) /tur/

  • n.,
    • child
    • young (herd animals)
    • second [in rank]
  • v.,
    • to be/make small
    • to be insufficient
    • to reduce
  • adj., young, small, little.

tuš: 𒂉 (DAB5/DÚR/DÚRU/DURUN/KU/TUKUL/TÚŠ/ŠE10) /ku/qú/dab/

  • n., home.
  • v.,
    • to sit, lie (down) (transitive)
    • to sing
    • to dwell, reside
    • to be at home
    • to settle
    • to set up, establish

U

ù 𒅇 (Ù/IGI DIB) /ù/

  • n.,
    • sleep
    • land
  • v., to sleep.
  • conj., and, but, also, furthermore, moreover.
  • correlative, either… or, neither… nor.
  • part., pref.,
    • modal prefix ‘if’ (prospective)
    • pronominal prefix in compound nouns to derive a more specific meaning
  • prep., when, after.
  • imperative, polite (please).

u4 (ud): 𒌓 (BABBAR/U4/UD/UT/TUA/UTU) /liḫ/par/pir/tam/ud/ut/uţ/ḫiš/

  • n.,
    • noise, voice, cry
    • purslane (edible/medicinal plant)
  • v., to bellow, bray, bawl.

 

U4.AN.NA dEN.LIL.LA: 𒌓𒀭𒈾𒀭𒂗𒆤𒇲

  • n., title, lit. “When Anu and Enlil…”; also known as Enuma Anu Enlil, or EAE for short. A compilation of 68-70 cuneiform tablets with anywhere from 6,500 to 7,000 omens, which became the hallmark of Babylonian astrology.

ub 𒌒 (UB/ÁR) /ár/ub/up/

  • n.,
    • corner, angle
    • nook, small room
  • v., to enunciate.

u4-ba: 𒌓𒁀

  • prep., phrase at that time, then, in those days.

 

ud (u4): 𒌓 (BABBAR/U4/UD/UT/TUA/UTU) /liḫ/par/pir/tam/ud/ut/uţ/ḫiš/

  • n.,
    • day
    • time
    • sun
    • light
    • weather
    • storm
    • heat
    • fever
    • summer
    • demon (storm demon)
  • prep., if, when, since.

 

ul4 𒄉 (GÍR gunû/KIŠI17/KÍŠIG/UL4) /ád/át/át/kišig/

  • n.,
    • anything, something
    • terror
    • vault of heaven, firmament
  • v.,
    • to be quick
    • to hurry, hasten
    • to harass
    • to become bright, to shine
    • to grind
  • adv., greatly.

 

ul4-la-bi 𒄉𒆷𒁉

  • adv., quickly, very soon.

 

un 𒌦 (UN/KALAM/KANAM/ÙG/ÙĜ/ÙKU) /un/uĝ/

  • n., people, population.
  • part., syllable used for spelling.

ur: 𒌨 (HUL/TÉŠ/UR) /lig/lik/liq/taš/teš/ur/

  • n.,
    • dog, lion, beast
    • servant
    • young man
    • warrior
    • enemy
    • figurine, toy
  • v., to tremble.
  • adj., humble.

 

urta: 𒅁 (DÁRA/IB/URAŠ/URTA)

  • n., oval; shrine; ear of barley.

 

 

ús: 𒍑 (60/GÌŠ/NITA/NITAḪ/ÚS/) /uš/

  • n.,
    • foundation
    • distance
    • dimension (length, width)
    • perpendicular
    • side, edge
    • unit (of length)
    • vertical
    • path
  • v.,
    • to support
    • to lift
    • to stand on
    • to follow, accompany
    • to drive
    • to come near to, (let) reach
    • to transport
    • to bring
    • to join
    • to be next to, boarder, lean against
    • to dock, moor
    • to impose
    • to be of less quality
  • num., 60.

uš: 𒍑 (60/GÌŠ/NITA/NITAḪ/ÚS/) /uš/

  • n.,
    • foundation
    • distance
    • dimension (length, width)
    • perpendicular
    • side, edge
    • unit (of length)
    • vertical
    • man
    • penis
  • v.,
    • to support
    • to lift
    • to stand on
    • to follow, accompany
    • to drive
    • to come near to, (let) reach
    • to transport
    • to bring
    • to join
    • to be next to, boarder, lean against
    • to dock, moor
  • num., 60.
  • part., suff., (-uš) they/them (pers.) when the root verb ends in /u/.

úš: 𒍗 (ÚŠ)

  • n.,
    • blood, gore
    • blood vessel
    • death
  • v.,
    • to block, shut off
    • to die
    • to be dead
    • to kill
  • adj., dead.

ùšu: 𒌍 (/BÀ//ÙŠU (U+U+U))

  • n., num., thirty (30).

dutu: 𒀭𒌓

  • n., prop., Sumerian God of the Sun, who knew and saw everything, making him the god of justice. He was the son of the Moon God Nanna and his wife and Ningal, and sister of Inanna (Venus). His wife was Aya, the Goddess of the Dawn, both of whom were primarily worshipped in Sippar.

uz: 𒊻 (ŠE ḪU/UZ) /uz/us/

  • n., duck (wild).

 

uz-ga: 𒊻𒂵

  • n.,
    • priest
    • cella, shrine
    • treasure, goods

Z

za: 𒍝 (ZA) /sá/za/ṣ/

  • n.,
    • bead
    • gem
    • man
  • v., to make noise
  • pron., you (sg.) (abs.)
  • part., pron. suff., in/on/to, of your (loc., dat., gen.).

 

zà: 𒍠 (ZÀ/ZAG) /zag/zak/zaq/

  • n.,
    • (right) side
    • front
    • shoulder
    • outer edge, boarder, cusp
    • outskirts, outer edge, frontier
    • end, limit
    • beginning
    • district, place
    • sanctuary
    • percentage, measure (for fish)
    • outside of

 

zag: 𒍠 (ZÀ/ZAG) /zag/zak/zaq/

  • n.,
    • (right) side
    • front
    • shoulder
    • outer edge, boarder, cusp
    • outskirts, outer edge, frontier
    • end, limit
    • beginning
    • district, place
    • sanctuary
    • percentage, measure (for fish)
    • outside of

 

zag-mu: 𒍠𒈬 (ZA(G).MU)

  • n., [the] New Year

 

zé: 𒍢(ZÍ/ZÉ(ABxPA)) /zé/ṣe/zí/ṣi/

  • n.,
    • dirt, bile
    • gall bladder
  • pron., you (sg.)

zi: 𒍣 (SÉ/ZI/ZID/ZÌG) /sé/sí/ze/ṣé/ṣí/

  • n.,
    • life
    • breath
    • throat
  • v.,
    • to be faithful, righteous, true
    • to rise, stand
    • to issue
    • to levy, raise, rouse, muster, recruit (zi-zi (marû))
    • to swell
    • to become excited
    • to expend, to spend
    • to (make) go out
    • to tear out, uproot, weed, to take out, extract, remove, deduct
    • to approach
  • adj., high.

 

zib: 𒍦 (alt. of 𒍨 zíb) (ZIB)

  • n., mark, token, color, paint, stamp, brand; haunch.

 

zìg: 𒍣 (SÉ/ZI/ZID/ZÌG) /sé/sí/ze/ṣé/ṣí/

  • n., wall, partition.
  • v.,
    • to rise, stand
    • to issue
    • to levy, raise, rouse, muster, recruit (zi-zi (marû))
    • to swell
    • to become excited
    • to expend, to spend
    • to (make) go out
    • to tear out, uproot, weed, to take out, extract, remove, deduct
    • to approach
  • adj., high.

zu: 𒍪 (ZU) /sú/zu/ṣú/

  • n., wisdom, knowledge.
  • v.,
    • to know
    • to learn, discover
    • to experience
    • to acknowledge, proclaim
    • to inform, teach (reduplicated (marû))
    • to be qualified, experienced
  • part., pron. suff., your(s) (abs., erg.)

 

zubi: 𒉽𒈿  (PAP.NÁ/GÀM/ZUBI)

  • n., sickle.

 

 

zuḫ: (ZÚ/ZUḪ) 𒅗 (KA/GÙ/ZÚ/DUG4/DU11/KIR4/GIRI17/ZUḪ/INIM/I5) /ka/kag/zu/kir4/kir/kiri/zu/dug

  • v., to steal, rob.

zu-ne-ne: 𒍪𒉈𒉈 (ZU.NE.NE)

  • part., pron. suff., your (abs., erg., gen.) (alt. zu-ne)